They had two other children: Nietzsche's father died from a brain ailment in ; Ludwig Joseph died six months later at age two.
He is considered an important forerunner of Existentialism movement although he does not fall neatly into any particular schooland his work has generated an extensive secondary literature within both the Continental Philosophy and Analytic Philosophy traditions of the 20th Century.
He challenged the foundations of Christianity and traditional morality, famously asserting that "God is dead", leading to generally justified charges of AtheismMoral SkepticismRelativism and Nihilism.
He wrote prolifically and profoundly for many years under conditions of ill-health and often intense physical pain, ultimately succumbing to severe mental illness.
Many of his works remain controversial and open to conflicting interpretations, and his uniquely provocative and aphoristic writing style, and his non-traditional and often speculative thought processes have earned him many enemies as well as great praise.
His life-affirming ideas, however, have inspired leading figures in all walks of cultural life, not just philosophy, especially in Continental Europe. His father was Carl Ludwig Nietzsche a Lutheran pastor and former teacher and his mother was Franziska Oehler, and the couple had two other children, Elisabeth born in and Ludwig Joseph born in He was born with severe myopia and was always a delicate and sickly child.
Nietzsche's father died from a brain ailment in when Nietzsche was only fiveafter more than a year of pain and suffering, and his younger brother died soon after, in These events caused Nietzsche to question why God would make good people suffer so, and were a decisive factor in his early doubts about Christianity.
The family then moved to Naumburg, where they lived with Nietzsche's paternal grandmother and his two unmarried aunts. After the death of Nietzsche's grandmother inthe family moved into their own house.
Nietzsche attended a boys' school and later a private school, before beginning to attend the Domgymnasium in Naumburg in Although a solitary and taciturn youth, he showed particular talents in music and language and, paradoxically, also in religious education.
The internationally-recognized Schulpforta school admitted him as a pupil inand he continued his studies there untilreceiving an important introduction to literature particularly that of the ancient Greeks and Romans and a taste of life outside his early small-town Christian environment.
After graduating inNietzsche commenced studies in theology and classical philology the study of literary texts and linguistics at the University of Bonn, ostensibly with a view to following his father into the priesthood.
After just one semester, though, much to the dismay of his motherhe stopped his theological studies and announced that he had lost his faith although, two years earlier, he had already argued that historical research had discredited the central teachings of Christianity. Nietzsche then concentrated on philology under Professor Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl -whom he followed to the University of Leipzig the next year, producing his first philological publications soon thereafter.
|Critique of Religion and Morality||His father died inand the family relocated to Naumburg, where he grew up in a household comprising his mother, grandmother, two aunts, and his younger sister, Elisabeth. Nietzsche had a brilliant school and university career, culminating in May when he was called to a chair in classical philology at Basel.|
|Life and Works||Themes, Arguments, and Ideas The Nihilism of Contemporary Europe While most of his contemporaries looked on the late nineteenth century with unbridled optimism, confident in the progress of science and the rise of the German state, Nietzsche saw his age facing a fundamental crisis in values. Nietzsche rightly foresaw that people need to identify some source of meaning and value in their lives, and if they could not find it in science, they would turn to aggressive nationalism and other such salves.|
These works, as well as Europe's increasing concern with science, Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection, and the general rebellion against tradition and authority greatly intrigued Nietzsche, and he looked to expand his horizons beyond philology and to study more philosophy.
After his one year of voluntary service with the Prussian army was curtailed by a bad riding accident in Marchhe returned to his studies and graduated later in Although he was considering giving up philology for science at that time, he nevertheless accepted an offer to become professor of classical philology at the University of Basel in Switzerland.
He renounced his Prussian citizenship, and remained officially stateless thereafter. Although he did serve in the Prussian forces during the Franco-Prussian War of to as a medical orderly witnessing there something of the horrors of war, as well as contracting diphtheria and dysenteryhe observed the establishment of the German Empire and the militaristic era of Otto von Bismarck as a skeptical outsider.
During his time at Basel, Nietzsche frequently visited Richard Wagner and his wife Cosima, and was accepted into their inner circle.
Wagner was a strong believer in Schopenhauer 's theory that great art was the only way to overcome the misery inherent in human existence, and he became something of a surrogate father to Nietzsche. Inhe published his first book, "The Birth of Tragedy out of the Spirit of Music", a profoundly pessimistic work in the style of Schopenhauer and Wagner, in which he asserted among other things that the best thing was not to have been born and the second best thing was to die young.
His one-time teacher and mentor, Professor Ritschl, however, berated its lack of philological rigor. He pursued his own individualistic philosophy and, inpublished the controversial and isolating "Menschliches, Allzumenschliches" "Human, All Too Human".
Inhopelessly out of touch with his colleagues at the University of Basel and after a significant decline in health which forced him to take longer and longer holidays until regular work became impractical, Nietzsche had to resign his position at Basel.
His health had always been precarious, with moments of acute shortsightedness, migraine headaches and violent stomach upsets, possibly as a result of syphilis contracted in a brothel as a student.
In search of a palliative for his delicate health, he traveled frequently over the next ten years, living on his pension from Basel, but also on aid from friends as an independent author near St. Between andhe returned repeatedly to a sparsely-furnished rented room in Sils Maria in the Swiss Alps, where he wrote some of his most important work, writing until noon and then walking in the mountains in the afternoon.
This, then, marked Nietzsche's most productive period and, starting with 's "Menschliches, Allzumenschliches", he would publish one book or major section of a book each year untilhis last year of writing.
He had little or no luck with romantic relationships, many women apparently put off by his huge mustache.
The book was published in four parts between andbut the market received it only to the degree required by politeness and the book remained largely unsold.What is a simple explanation of Nietzsche's ideas and philosophy?
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No multi-year contracts and no multiple versions. How can Friedrich Nietzsche's philosophy be liberating? Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche ( - ) was a 19th Century German philosopher and philologist.
He is considered an important forerunner of Existentialism movement (although he does not fall neatly into any particular school), and his work has generated an extensive secondary literature within both the Continental Philosophy and Analytic Philosophy traditions of the 20th Century.
Friedrich Nietzsche (—) Nietzsche was a German philosopher, essayist, and cultural critic. His writings on and he learned much about the history of philosophy from Friedrich Albert Lange’s massive History of Materialism, which Nietzsche once called “a treasure trove” of historical and philosophical names, dates, and.
Nietzsche Philosophy Summary. share. Contents. 1 Friedrich Nietzsche, a German philosopher; Friedrich Nietzsche, a German philosopher. Go further on Nietzsche’s Philosophy: Nietzsche’s Superman The Will to Power Nietzsche’s Quotes Nietzsche and Morality. Friedrich Nietzsche was one of the most influential of all modern existentialist and postmodernist thinkers.
He is considered the father of Nihilism, which teaches that there is no ultimate meaning to human existence. Nietzsche was born in in the Prussian province of Saxony. His father was Carl. Friedrich Nietzsche (–) was a literary and social critic, not a systematic philosopher.
In ethics, the chief target of his criticism was the Judeo-Christian tradition. He described Jewish ethics as a “slave morality” based on envy.