Haiti, a name that means "mountainous country," is derived from the language of the Taino Indians who inhabited the island before European colonization. After independence inthe name was adopted by the military generals, many of them former slaves, who expelled the French and took possession of the colony then known as Saint Domingue. In95 percent of the population was of African descent, and the remaining 5 percent mulatto and white. Some wealthy citizens think of themselves as French, but most residents identify themselves as Haitian and there is a strong sense of nationalism.
Maya When Christopher Columbus voyaged to the Caribbean, there were groups of people living there. These people were known as the indigenous people. They are separated into three groups, the Tainos, the Kalinagos and the Mayans. Although they all lived in the Caribbean, they had different economic, social and religious practices.
Their ways of living were different but there were some similarities, and they were also even more advanced than others with technology and architecture. They had bronze-coloured skin, average stature, dark, flowing, curse hair and large, slightly oblique dark eyes.
They were generally naked, unmarried women went naked, married ones wore a flap over their genitals the length of the flap determined their rank. Their chief, who was known as the Cacique, lived in large rectangular buildings, whereas commoners lived in circular buildings.
They settled on mountains to see when the war-like Kalinagos were coming or near rivers and creeks to escape from them easily. Their households contained extended families. The Tainos however, did not practice polygamy.
They used a cultivation method called conuco with their agriculture. Conuco is a form of agriculture based on mounds of earth and dug drains, which prevented erosion in the fields and improved drainage to help their crops grow. Their main crop was cassava, they hunted, gathered and fished for their food, and they also traded on a small scale.
The chief position was hereditary, passed down from father to son. Tainos believed in the existence of a Spirit World.
They worshipped the universal creator Alyberi. They made sacrifices of food and beverage to their gods so they would be happy, and they believed that Zemi gods would bring them good fortune.
The Kalinagos, also known as the Caribs, who were medium-heighted slightly taller than the Tainosbrown-skineed, they had long black hair and they were muscled.
They also flattened the foreheads of their children. They were generally naked, they painted their skin with roucou a red dyecircled their eyes with black. The women wore bracelets on their arms and legs and the men wore jewelry in their lips and nose, as well as colourful headdresses.
They settled in the Lesser Antilles in Barbados, St. There huts were oval-shaped, and since they were a patriarchal society, the women lived separately from the men. The Kalinago men lived in a large house together called a carbet while they were training to be warriors, whereas the women lived in a kabay.
Like the Tainos, the Kalinagos used the cultivation method of cunoco, and their main crop was also cassava, and they were skilled hunters and fishermen.
However, it was a little more organized during times of war; wars were organized by the chief, the Oboutu, who only really had authority during times of war, he also had the responsibility of rewarding the Kalinago men who were successful in raids and hunting.
The Oboutu position was not hereditary like the Cacique, instead it was given to the head of the family based on his physical strength. The priest was called the Boyez, and he was called to heal the sick and cast spells; there were also men called Praimen who they believed possessed supernatural powers.
The Kalinago religion was an adaption of Taino practices. They believed strongly in the Spiritual world with cases of both good and evil. They claimed that Analwaea and his brother Vachi created the world, and they offered them material gods such as food and water, they also believed in evil spirits called Maboyas.
They believed in ancestral and nature worship; tobacco played an important part in their spiritual rituals. Death for the Kalinagos meant a special journey to either a heaven or a hell.
The Mayan civilization was the most civilized and technologically advanced of the three groups. The Mayan houses were small and simple, but the houses of the nobles were from sculptured stones. They lived in households containing extended families, where the men had one main wife but other concubines.Tainos Essay.
Who are the Taino?
The Taino (pronounced Tah-EE-no) were the first "American" Indigenous Peoples encountered by Christopher Columbus and other Europeans in the Caribbean Islands in The Taino are also the first Indigenous Peoples to be referred to as "Indians" (Indios) in the Western Hemisphere.
Who are the Taino? NMAI is committed to advancing knowledge and taino essay understanding of the Native cultures of the Western Hemisphere through partnership with Native people and others.
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