Women Empowerment Essay If women are empowered, they can break limitations imposed by the family and society, and take their own decisions. In schools, students are often asked to write paragraphs or essays on female empowerment.
Pre-colonial coinage[ edit ] Piloncitosa type of coin used by the pre-colonial peoples of the archipelago. The trade the pre-colonial tribes of what is now the Philippines did among themselves with its many types of pre-Hispanic kingdoms kedatuansrajahnateswangdoms, lakanates and sultanates and with traders from the neighboring islands was conducted through barter.
The inconvenience of barter however later led to the use of some objects as a medium of exchange. Goldwhich was plentiful in many parts of the islands, invariably found its way into these objects that included the Piloncitossmall bead-like gold bits considered by the local numismatists as the earliest coin of the ancient peoples of the Philippines, and gold barter rings.
The teston became the de facto unit of trade between Spaniards and Filipinos before the founding of Manila in The native Tagalog name for the coin was salapi "money". Pre-decimal coinage[ edit ] With the establishment of Spanish Manila in the late 16th century, the Spanish introduced the silver real de a ochoalready known across the Spanish Empire colloquially as the pesowhich was divided into 8 reales and further subdivided into 4 cuartos or 8 octavos.
The monetary situation in the Philippine Islands was chaotic due to the circulation of many types of coins, with differing purity and weights, coming from mints across the Spanish-speaking world.
Value equivalents of the different monetary systems were usually difficult to comprehend and hindered trade and commerce. Decimal coinage[ edit ] An attempt to remedy the monetary confusion was made inwith the introduction of the decimal system in under the second Isabelline monetary system.
Conversion to the decimal system with the peso fuerte Spanish for strong peso as the unit of account solved the accounting problem, but did little to remedy the confusion of differing circulating coinage.
Renewed calls for the Philippine Islands to have a proper mint and monetary system finally came to fruition in Septemberwhen Queen Isabel II authorized the creation of the Casa de Moneda de Manila and purchase of required machinery. The mint was inaugurated on March 19, Despite the mintage of gold and silver coins, Mexican and South and Central American silver still circulated widely.
The peso fuerte was also a unit of exchange equivalent to 1. On March 5,Isabel II granted the mint permission to produce silver fractional coinage 0.
Minting of these coins started inwith designs similar to the Spanish silver escudo. The Alfonso peso, the Spanish-Filipino peso[ edit ] The currency in the Philippines was standardized by the Spanish government with the minting of a silver peso expressly for use in the colony and firmly reestablishing the silver standard as the Philippine monetary system.
This configuration was also used in the creation of the Puerto Rican provincial peso in giving both coins the equivalency of 5 pesetas.
The coins were the first to use the name centavo for the subdivision of the peso. The island of Panay also issued revolutionary coinage. After the United States took control of the Philippines, the United States Congress passed the Philippine Coinage Act ofestablished the unit of currency to be a theoretical gold peso not coined consisting of The act provided for the coinage and issuance of Philippine silver pesos substantially of the weight and fineness as the Mexican peso, which should be of the value of 50 cents gold and redeemable in gold at the insular treasury, and which was intended to be the sole circulating medium among the people.
The act also provided for the coinage of subsidiary and minor coins and for the issuance of silver certificates in denominations of not less than 2 nor more than 10 pesos.THERE IS another version of the EDSA People Power story, but it is one that EDSA veterans aren’t liking.
In this new version, former President Ferdinand Marcos is portrayed as the real hero of EDSA for refusing to fire upon the assembled crowds in February ; EDSA was a gathering of military.
Historians’ perceptions on the role of Political Cartoons in shaping Philippine history Jonalou SJ. Labor PhD Communication student Media Media Historiography College of Mass Communication University of the Philippines Diliman ABSTRACT This study focused on a select group of historians’ perceptions and musings about the functions, dysfunctions, and accretions of political cartoons in.
PHILIPPINE POLITICS AND THE RULE OF LAW Poe’s defeat did little to dispel the perception that Philippine democ-racy suffers from a persistent malaise. Macapagal-Arroyo had the superior From the perspective of foreign observers and Manila-based analysts, the national government appears to play a dominant role.
To average Filipinos. Updated world stock indexes. Get an overview of major world indexes, current values and stock market data. Perception of Philippine Politics Based on News Program. Topics: Mass media, The Environmental Movement and Philippine Politics A natural bridge from Southeast Asia, the Philippines archipelago is located in one of the richest marine realms in the world.
Perception of Philippine Politics Based on News Program Submitted by: Alba, Emmanuel Evan Cabildo, Angeli Mercado, Aizel Kristel Pagdato, Gladys Rodenas, Zaira May.