The three new ships were not especially fast, as they were designed for the immigrant trade, but provided significant cost savings in fuel economy.
They had larger, faster, more modern, more luxurious ships than Cunard and were better placed, starting from German ports, to capture the lucrative trade in emigrants leaving Europe for North America. Cunard saw their passenger numbers affected as a result of the so-called " Kaiser-class ocean liners ".
Faced with the impending collapse of the British liner fleet and the consequent loss of national prestige, as well as the reserve of shipping for war purposes which it represented, they agreed to help. In return the ships would be built to Admiralty specifications so that they could be used as auxiliary cruisers in wartime.
Other members included Rear Admiral H. Oram, who had been involved in designs for steam turbine powered ships for the navy, and Charles Parsonswhose company Parsons Marine was now producing revolutionary turbine engines.
Turbines offered the advantages of generating less vibration than the reciprocating engines and greater reliability in operation at high speeds, combined with lower fuel consumption. It was agreed that a trial would be made by fitting turbines to Carmaniawhich was already under construction.
The result was a ship 1. A fourth funnel was implemented into the design in as it was necessary to vent the exhaust from additional boilers fitted after steam turbines had been settled on as the power plant.
The original plan called for three propellers, but this was altered to four because it was felt the necessary power could not be transmitted through just three. Four turbines would drive four separate propellers, with additional reversing turbines to drive the two inboard shafts only.
To improve efficiency, the two inboard propellers rotated inwards, while those outboard rotated outwards. The outboard turbines operated at high pressure; the exhaust steam then passing to those inboard at relatively low pressure.
The propellers were driven directly by the turbines, since sufficiently robust gearboxes had not yet been developed, and only became available in Instead, the turbines had to be designed to run at a much lower speed than those normally accepted as being optimum.
Thus, the efficiency of the turbines installed was less at low speeds than a conventional reciprocating piston in cylinder steam engine, but significantly better when the engines were run at high speed, as was usually the case for an express liner.
The ship was fitted with 23 double-ended, and two single-ended boilers which fitted the forward space where the ship narrowedoperating at a maximum psi and containing individual furnaces. By the lifeboat arrangement had been changed to 11 fixed boats either side, plus collapsible boats stored under each lifeboat and on the poop deck.
Work to refine the hull shape was conducted in the Admiralty experimental tank at HaslarGosport. As a result of experiments, the beam of the ship was increased by 10 feet 3. The central half contained four boiler rooms, with the remaining space at the forward end of the ship being reserved for cargo and other storage.Fuji F Underwater Camera and Housing now available for hire £ per week plus refundable deposit £ per day plus refundable deposit Also available for hire to suitably qualified divers ‘Interspiro full-face masks complete £ Minimum Qualification Advanced Diver with 50 logged dives.
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1 RMS Titanic disaster seen in the light of risk and safety theories and models Jon Ivar Håvold Ålesund University College ABSTRACT: The continuing public fascination with the sinking of RMS.