Recommendations for reducing the gender income gap and the origins of the problem

Their evaluations take into account economic participation and opportunity, educational attainmenthealth and survival, and political empowerment scores.

Recommendations for reducing the gender income gap and the origins of the problem

List of 5 causes for the gender pay gap. List 5 causes of the gender pay gap. Rank in order of importance - 1 being most important 5 being least - and discuss why you have ranked it in that order.

Now re-rank these 5 causes in order of "difficulty to change". Discuss the reasons why these two lists are different.

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What solutions could be developed to tackle the most important and the most difficult-to-change causes of gender pay gap? The history of the struggle for equal pay In Britain, as in every country in the world, women have historically been paid less than men for doing the same job.

Contrary to widespread belief, this struggle for equal pay did not start in the s, but has been taken up by women workers since the late 19th century. When they realised that they were expected to do exactly the same work as men but for lower wages, they raised the issue of equal pay through several strikes during this period.

One of the early strikes for equal pay was in by women tram and bus conductorswhich resulted in a settlement of a bonus in pay equal to that paid to men workers. Women workers also campaigned against these injustices. Inthe issue of equal pay hit the newspaper headlines.

Still not quite equal pay, was it? However, their actions contributed to the campaign for equal pay and the passage of the Equal Pay Act According to this act, men and women are entitled to equal pay and terms of employment.

A pamphlet demanding equal pay for equal work in -when most unions had not taken up that demand. During these years employers often re-graded jobs by changing job titles to evade the Equal Pay Act and to justify unequal wages for men and women doing the same jobs, for example, from Personal Assistant to Typist.

Recommendations for reducing the gender income gap and the origins of the problem

Following campaigning by trade unions, there was much progress on equal pay as new laws extended and strengthened the first equal pay legislation. According to this Act, men and women are entitled to equal pay and conditions if they are doing the same job; like work work that is the same or broadly similar ; work rated as equivalent different work, but which is rated under a job evaluation scheme as equivalent ; or work of equal value that is, work that requires similar effort, skill and decision-making.

Under this law, it is possible to bring a claim up to six years after leaving a job.

Recommendations for reducing the gender income gap and the origins of the problem

Limitations and directions for the future Forty years after the first equal pay legislation, women can still expect to be paid less than men. However, it still remains very difficult for women to gain equal pay.

A woman has to first find out that she is being paid less than a man in a comparable job - people are often secretive about how much they are paid. It also takes a lot of money and time to bring a case against an employer who will have far more resources than an individual employee.

Where women are members of trade unions, they have been helped by their union to take their case to the employment tribunal. Trade unions have criticised this move — which ministers claim will save money for businesses and taxpayers — as the latest attack on workers' fundamental rights.

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By charging upfront fees for harassment and abuse claims, the government is making it easier for employers to get away with the most appalling behaviour. On 26 Julyin a case against the government brought by the trade union, UNISON, fees for those bringing employment tribunal claims have been ruled unlawful.

Britain's highest court unanimously ruled that the fees contravene both EU and UK law such as the Equality Act and are "discriminatory" against women as they disproportionately affected women.

The Supreme Court ruled that the Government's employment tribunal fees are "illegal" and preventing people - especially those on lower incomes — from getting justice.

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Explain 20 mins Using the information within this section, create your own timeline explaining the history of the struggle for equal pay in the UK.Education International: The Gender Pay Gap – reasons and implications 1 The Gender Pay Gap – reasons and implications According to the ILO, progress in reducing the gender pay gap is very slow in Europe and Central Asia.

In certain countries there has even been evidence of an increase in the difference income is distributed. Education for All”, therefore, is the result of constructive and valuable feedback as well as critical insight from the following individuals: Anupam Ahuja, Mel Ainscow, Alphonsine Bouya-Aka Blet, Marlene Cruz.

Jennifer Ng University of Kansas E-mail Author JENNIFER C.

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NG is an assistant professor in the School of Education at the University of Kansas. Her primary research interests include the socialization of beginning teachers in urban schools, as well as such multicultural issues as race, class, and gender.

Coupled with issues of income, age, gender, and culture, the goal of ensuring safety in the context of disaster becomes increasingly complex. Accordingly, it is not appropriate to think of preparing just for a person who uses a walker. Depression is a major public health problem that is twice as common in women as men during the effectively guide practice and policy recommendations and further research is required before evidence- postpartum depression for the mother and child within diverse ethnic and .

More than a trait of individuals, gender is an institutionalized system of social practices. The gender system is deeply entwined with social hierarchy and leadership because gender stereotypes contain status beliefs that associate greater status worthiness and competence with men than women.

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